Scientists have discovered what drives inflammation in IBD
Reachers have now found a mechanism which regulates gut inflammation in inflammatory bowel disorders and this may lead to improvements in treatment and diagnosis of some IBD such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.
IBD can reduce quality of life, so finding new treatments for it is vital.
Researchers at Sanford Burnham Prebys (SBP) Medical Discovery Institute in La Jolla, CA, and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa have identified a role for a protein called RNF5, which is abundant in cells that line the gut.
- What they found is that the protein RNF5 controls the activity of S100A8, a protein already known to be a promoter of inflammation.
- The scientists found that RNF5 keeps S100A8 stable in cells of the gut lining, and that its absence unleashes the pro-inflammatory power of S100A8.
- IBD can cause symptoms that, in turn, cause discomfort, pain, and distress. These include: diarrhoea, constipation, rectal bleeding, abdominal pain and cramp, and a sudden and urgent need to go to the bathroom.
- According to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), around 3 million adults in the United States report having received a diagnosis of IBD showing how much of a pressing issue this is.
- Treatments currently do not work in all cases, and they can also become less effective over time.
“Our findings,” says Prof. Ronai, “indicate that RNF5 is the lock that keeps a key inflammatory protein under control.”
Breaking the lock is like opening “Pandora’s box,“ he adds, and the result is that “S100A8 is released to cause inflammation.“
Although it is already known that inflammatory proteins are involved in IBD, the underlying driving mechanism has remained a mystery until now. Recent findings will now allow for more targeted treatments which will hopefully aid in diagnosis as well as managing peoples pain and ultimately aiding in the process to find a long term cure.
Artificial Intelligence in Radiology is a hot topic at the moment! So what is Artificial Intelligence?….
Artificial Intelligence– The theory and development of computer systems able to perform tasks normally requiring human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between languages.
Deep learning– Deep learning is part of a broader family of machine learning methods based on learning data representations, as opposed to task-specific algorithms. Learning can be supervised, semi-supervised or unsupervised.
A huge step forward for radiology is Computer Aided Diagnosis– through image processing, image feature analysis, data classification in deep learning, the possible ability for computers to use images in radiology in order to come to a diagnosis would have a huge effect. It will have the ability to filer out normal plain films and flag abnormal films for review. As well as this it could be used in CTIMRI for example identifying malignancy. A key benefit being, with an increase in the reporting workload of radiologists with hospitals increasingly relying on imaging, artificial intelligence would be a great way to help reduce this.
However developing artificial intelligence requires access to large volumes of data which may be challenging in the UK particularly in the NHS. It also poses a threat to jobs as artificial imaging is likely to be largely driven by computer scientists which will restrict the input of radiologists.
In the UK surrounded already by artificial intelligence in our day to day life we are already ready for it. Now for the next step, we need to promote artificial intelligence amongst the radiology community, including technicians and undergraduates.